Why Would a Court Case Be Confidential
Trial: While the whistleblower may be a key witness to guilt or innocence, Article 1042, paragraph (d) of the Code of Evidence requires a closed hearing outside the presence of the defence, with a sealed record and only to be examined by a court. If the reporting person is relevant to the validity of an arrest warrant (Evid. Code of Law, § 1042, para. (b)), People v. Hobbs, loc. cit., 7 Cal.4th 948, 973-974, requires a closed hearing upon request. If the whistleblower is relevant to the validity of a search or arrest without warrant, section 1042(c) of the Code of Evidence requires a public hearing to determine whether the whistleblower is reliable. (Cooper v. Superior Court (1981) 118 Cal.App.3d 506-509.) NOTE: Administrative records (records maintained by government agencies rather than courts) are NOT covered by this rule.
However, administrative records are generally not accessible to the public. If you need an address where court documents can be delivered to you safely, the Address Privacy Program (PAL) can help. See resources below. Justification for confidentiality: Protection of the privacy of the accused and possibly his family, witnesses, etc. (People v. Connor (2004) 115 Cal.App.4th 669.) Legal proceedings: The court orders the preparation of a probation or diagnostic report. The confidentiality of the report is governed by §§ 1203.05 or 1203.03 of the Criminal Code. Appeal procedure: These reports are part of the normal record. (Rule 8.320(b)) (13) (D) and (E).) In accordance with Article 8.45(c) and (d), reports are delivered in a confidential envelope to the Court, the Attorney General and the respondent who is the subject of the report. According to article 1203.05 of the Criminal Code, the public and other parties to the proceedings, such as co-defendants, do not have access (at least after 60 days after the verdict).
(Although rule 8.47(d)(4) does not require a parole report on co-accused, a co-accused would have access upon request as a member of the public until the end of the 60 days.) 2014 AMENDMENTS: Effective January 1, 2014, California`s rules of procedure regarding sealed or confidential records were substantially amended. The changes are summarized here. The following discussion has been revised to reflect these changes. Source of confidentiality: Article 1042 of the Code of Evidence, paragraphs (b) to (d); Persons v. Hobbs, op. cit. cit., 7 Cal.4th 948, 973-974. Experimental methods: The test methods are defined in rules 2.550 to 2.551. A request or request for filing shall be filed and notified in accordance with Rule 2.551(b)(1), (2) and (5); or a registration under a confidentiality agreement or protection order is filed under clause (b)(3); either a record to be sealed is submitted in accordance with (b)(4) and (5). A sealing order must specify the five findings required by Rule 2.550(d) and the content and extent of the sealing (Rule 2.550(e), 2.551(e)). The procedures for unsealing are prescribed in Article 2.551(h). Rationale for confidentiality: The reason varies depending on the type of document sealed and must be provided by the court ordering that the registration be sealed.
(Rule 2.550(d)-e), 8.46(d)(6).) When a particular court document is sealed, it is removed from the court record and a filler sheet is inserted indicating that the document is sealed. The sealed document is protected from public access. Practice Note – Police Reports: Police reports may be used as a factual basis for advocacy or otherwise part of the protocol. They are not written with privacy in mind, and the lawyer should redact personal information unrelated to the case before sharing it with clients. On each issue, the note reviews (a) the nature of the proceedings, (b) the legal basis for confidentiality, (c) the reason for the confidentiality, (d) typical court proceedings, and (e) ongoing proceedings before the Court of Appeal. It also provides practical advice to lawyers in a number of cases. • Practice Note – Protection of confidentiality in briefs and files: These files are generally very sensitive and the lawyer must make every effort to protect the client`s privacy by using initials and avoiding identifying information. If necessary, the lawyer may request that parts of the minutes and records be sealed.
On proof of service, the lawyer may use the letter first name-last name-initial or initials and “file address” instead of the actual address. The latest versions of the forms can be found on the website of the Administrative Office of Courts (AOC). Confidentiality forms can be found in the “General” category under “General Rule 22 forms”. By phone: (360) 705-3628 to request a purchase order to order forms by mail. Online: www.courts.wa.gov/forms/ Justification for confidentiality: protecting the personal safety and anonymity of the informant – and thus the interest of law enforcement authorities and thus the public in retaining sources of information. (Evid. Code of Law, § 1041, para. (a) (2); Menschen v. Hobbs, loc. cit., 7 Cal.4th 948, 958; see also McCray v. Illinois (1967) 386 U.S.
300, 308-309.) If the judge decides that only part of the information contained in a document should be protected from public access, he or she is protecting only that information, not the entire document. He or she will ask you to prepare a version of the document that blocks protected information but exposes it to the rest of the public. This will be filed in court records, with the note that it is a redacted version. The original document is sealed. The following types of records are not publicly available: Orders are published here for 30 days if the court grants certain requests for confidential information.